During the manufacture of concrete products, pigmentation is often used, which allows the mixture to give a certain shade. Experts in work apply granulated, liquid and powder dyes. They are selected strictly according to the technology and requirements of wettability, alkaline resistance and light resistance. All these requirements are taken into account, because pigments seriously affect the composition of the prepared solution.
The content of colored elements in the composition is equal to no more than 10% of the total weight. Also included are fly ash, Portland cement and other binding microelements. According to the technology level of dosing will not affect the final form of concrete. Most often, experts adhere to 6%, but the level may vary depending on the sample of the color ingredient.
In practice, there are economical and popular varieties with which the desired effect is achieved at a dosage of just 1%. To obtain high saturation and brightness, it is sufficient to grind the dye to a microscopic size. Very often 1/100 of the diameter of portland cement. Due to mixing, cement is held together with small particles, and after that large concrete mix and sand are added.
When creating is used iron oxide. This is the most common component for staining. It is economical to use and durable, which is important when creating paving slabs. It does not have a negative impact on the environment and is completely safe for the human body. In addition to iron oxide, synthetic options remain relevant. Artificial components guarantee a uniform and rich color.
Most often they are presented in four basic colors: 2 red, black and yellow. Cobalt is added to get blue, and chromium oxide is added to green. Titanium dioxide can lighten the material. During production, one should strictly adhere not only to the technological process, but also to select raw materials. Not surprisingly, sand, filler, or a binder will affect the final result.
In operation, the color is stored for a long time. It will change outwardly, but this is not due to the pigment component, but to the contamination of the product. Most often, the products are operated on the street. The influence of weather conditions leads to inevitable changes.
During the manufacture of decorative elements must be strictly followed the technological process. This will not only create a quality product, reliable in operation, but also beautiful. Achieving the required intensity is associated with such factors:
- degree of staining;
- the amount applied to the solution;
- variety of cement;
- quality and color of the aggregates;
- fluid volume in special mixtures;
- hardening mode;
- material to create the front part.
The amount of pigment used
Achieving the desired physical characteristics for the product is much easier than its color. Each company produces a different coloring matter. Using two different products, you should be prepared for different results. Specialists should choose only one raw material, otherwise the batches will be visually different. Today, many manufacturers are trying to choose expensive variations that are more economical to use than cheap ones. The latter must be used in large quantities, which also affects the cost.
To achieve the desired outcome often use black dye. It can easily be combined with others and make dark shades. If necessary, you can apply organic alkaline varieties, but when interacting with the sun, they will begin to fade. The most optimal is the use in the pastes, which are created specifically for these tasks. Each picks suitable for the products.
The role and influence of components
Cement is the basic ingredient in the work. It stands out for its features. Due to the purity of the color the result will be much better. The more it is present in the final system, the more intense the staining will be. Each manufacturer offers variations, and the varieties are also different. In the mixture of imported products is added in the amount of from 3 to 5%, but domestic – from 5% or more.
As for water, the smaller it will be, the brighter the product will be. Increased stiffness seriously affects brightness. This can be said about the mode of solidification. The initial curing temperature should be low.
How to get rid of efflorescence?
During operation, white discharges occur very often on the tile surface. They are formed as a result of the migration of sodium sulfate and lime, which are found in the composition itself, liquids and chemical additives. Radical and 100% effective ways do not exist yet. To reduce the manifestation of these emissions requires certain measures. They will help reduce these problems or even get rid of them. The main activities include:
- use only additive-free cement;
- the use of chemically purified or soft water;
- aging in forms up to 24 hours;
- laying of moisture-absorbing material on the inner parts of the pallets.
In case of appearance of efflorescence, wash them with detergents in no case.
In practice, efflorescence sometimes plays an important role. They can become positive if it is necessary for a decorative purpose. Alkali oxides are specially added to the production, which contribute to their appearance on the surface. Cooked goods stand out ashy-gray. For best effect, silicone impregnations are used, which are more expensive. They bind insoluble compounds and fix them. They are very expensive and not everyone uses them in their activities.